Taqqīyah according to the Ahl al-Sunnah wa ‘l-Jamā‘ah

By Mawlana Hisham Dawood

Taqiyyah According to Ahl Al Sunnah Wa Al Jamā‘ah[1]

Linguistic Meaning of Taqiyyah

Taqiyyah is the act of protecting one’s self from danger.[2]

Technical Meaning of Taqiyyah

To protect one’s self by displaying an action[3],[4] or speech contrary to one’s belief.[5]

Legality of Taqiyyah[6]

Taqiyyah in normal circumstances is impermissible according to the majority of ‘Ulamā’. It is only permissible in times of dire need. Al Imām Al Qurtubī said, “Taqiyyah is not permissible except if one fears death, or being cut up (into pieces), or great harm.”[7] Allāh Ta‘ālā says,

لَا يَتَّخِذِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ فِي شَيْءٍ إِلَّا أَنْ تَتَّقُوا مِنْهُمْ تُقَاةً (آل عمران:٢٨)

The believers should not take disbelievers as confidants in place of other believers. And whosoever does that he has no relation with Allāh except if you do so as a protective measure…(Āl ‘Imrān:28) 

This verse is proof for the permissibility of taqiyyah.

When the polytheists of Makkah tortured ‘Ammaār bin Yāsir Radiallāhu ‘Anhu and forced him to utter words of disbelief, Allāh Ta‘ālā revealed the following verse[8]:

مَنْ كَفَرَ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ إِيمَانِهِ إِلَّا مَنْ أُكْرِهَ وَقَلْبُهُ مُطْمَئِنٌّ بِالْإِيمَانِ وَلَكِنْ مَنْ شَرَحَ بِالْكُفْرِ صَدْرًا فَعَلَيْهِمْ غَضَبٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ (النحل:١٠٦)

Whoever disbelieves in Allāh after having faith-not the one who is compelled under duress whilst his heart remains content with belief but the one who is at ease with disbelief- upon them is the wrath of Allāh and for them is a great torment. (Al Naĥl: 106)

The Position of Taqiyyah

When grounds for taqiyyah are found, some consider it to be wājib (necessary). However, the correct opinion according to the ‘Ulamā is that it is best not to opt for taqiyyah and to proclaim one’s belief.[9] Al ‘Allāmah Al Qurtubī substantiates this opinion with the following proofs[10]:

  1. Allāh Ta‘ālā informs this Ummah of the hardships the Aŝhāb Al Ukhdūd endured for the sake of tawhīd (oneness of Allāh). Furthermore, Nabī Ŝallallāhu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam mentioned the narrative to spur the Ŝaĥābah to be steadfast in the face of hardships.
  2. Allāĥ Ta‘ālā mentions the advice Luqmān ‘Alaihis Salām gave to his son:

يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَا أَصَابَكَ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ (اللقمان: ١٧)

O my son! Establish ŝalāh, enjoin good, forbid evil, and endure patiently what befalls you. Surely this is among the matters of determination.

  1. Nabī Ŝallallāu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam said, “One of the greatest forms of Jihād is a statement of truth in the face of a tyrant ruler.”[11]
  2. Nabī Ŝallallāhu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam advised Abū Al Dardā’ Radiallāhu ‘Anhu, “Do not ascribe partners unto Allāh even though you may be cut up (into pieces) and burnt.”[12]
  3. Many Ŝaĥābah were tortured and they did not waiver: Bilāl, ‘Āŝim, Khubaib, Khabbāb, etc. Radiallāhu ‘Anhum

Conditions/Laws Pertaining Taqiyyah

  • Taqiyyah is only done when a person is amongst non-believers and he fears for his life or wealth. He may even utter words which show love/close friendship as long as his heart is clean of such beliefs.[13]
  • Taqiyyah is not permissible through actions which cause harm to others eg. killing, fornication, stealing, false testimony, circulate the secrets of the Muslims (usually at the time of war), etc.[14]
  • Taqiyyah is also permissible if one is threatened to be beaten (severely).[15]
  • Taqiyyah is only permissible if one actually fears some danger. If no danger is expected taqiyyah is impermissible.[16]
  • Taqiyyah should be used as a last resort.[17]
  • Taqiyyah is not permissible for gain of wealth, position, etc. (except in critical circumstances).[18]

Difference between Taqiyyah of Ahl Al Sunnah Wa Al Jamā‘ah and Shī‘ah[19]

Ahl Al Sunnah Wa Al Jamā‘ah Shī‘ah
Taqiyyah is a concession in Sharī‘ah; it is an exception to the rule. The stricture is to display one’s belief. Taqiyyah is compulsory. “The one who does not practice taqiyyah has no Deen.”[20]
Once the element of the concession of taqiyyah ceases the laxation is uplifted. The command of taqiyyah is perpetual. “Whoever leaves out taqiyyah before our Mahdī emerges, he is not from us.”[21]
Taqiyyah is usually done with non-believers and at time with transgressors. Taqiyyah is done with one’s own people also. “Hold fast to taqiyyah. Whoever does not make it his hallmark with his own people is not from us…”[22]
Taqiyyah is a disliked state. Meaning, a true believer would not like to be in a position to practice on taqiyyah. Taqiyyah holds a high position. The Shī‘ah quote Ja’far Al Ŝādiq, “There is nothing more beloved to me on the face of this earth than taqiyyah.”[23]

 

Conclusion

The Ahl Al Sunnah Wa Al Jamā’ah propagate truth, character, and high morals in one’s actions and speech. Deception and lying are the hallmarks of Shaitān and his followers. If one is forced to lie in order to save his life, wealth, etc. then he has been permitted to do. However, if one chooses to sacrifice his life for exalting the message of Allāh Ta’ālā he will be rewarded accordingly.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Hisham Dawood

Student, Darul Iftaa
Chicago, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

http://www.daruliftaa.net


[1]

مأخوذ من الموسوعة الفقهية الكويتية بتصرفات

[2]

الموسوعة الفقهية الكويتية ج-١٣ ص-١٨٥

[3]

يدخل فيه التقية بالفعل إضافة إلى التقية بالقول و التقية في العمل كما هي في الاعتقاد (الموسوعة الفقهية الكويتية ج-١٣ ص-١٨٥)

[4]

و لا يباح الإقدام على القتل في حالة الإكراه به يتبين عظم حرمة المؤمن عند الله تعالى و هو مراد ابن عباس رضي الله عنه انما التقية باللسان ليس باليد يعني القتل و التقية باللسان هو إجراء كلمة الكفر مكرها (المبسوط للسرخسي ج-٢٤ ص-٤٦، دار النوادر)

[5]

التقية أن يقي نفسه بما يظهره و إن كان يضمر خلافه (المبسوط للسرخسي ج-٢٤ ص-١٠، دار النوادر)

[6]

و عن الحسن البصري رحمه الله التقية جائزة للمومن إلى يوم القيامة إلا أنه كان لا يجعل في القتل تقية و به نأخذ (المبسوط للسرخسي ج-٢٤ ص-٤٥، دار النوادر)

[7]

الجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي ج-٢ ص-٤٢٩، دار الحديث

[8]

الطبري في تفسير الآية

[9]

و إعطاء التقية في مثل ذلك إنما هو رخصة من الله تعالى و ليس بواجب بل ترك التقية أفضل (أحكام القرآن للجصاص ج-٢ ص-١٦)

[10]

الجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي ج-١٠ ص-٢٤٢، دار الحديث

[11]

جامع الترمذي، باب ما جاء أفضل الجهاد كلمة عدل عند سلطان جائر

[12]

ابن ماجه، باب الصبر على البلاء

[13]

التفسير الكبير للرازي ج-٣ ص-١٩٣/١٩٤، دار إحياء التراث العربي

[14]

المصدر السابق

ثم يباح له إجراء كلمة الكفر في حالة الإكراه و لا يباح الإقدام على القتل في حالة الإكراه (المبسوط للسرخسي ج-٢٤ ص-٤٦، دار النوادر)

[15]

المصدر السابق

[16]

الموسوعة الفقهية الكويتية ج-١٣ ص-١٩١

[17]

و يشترط لجواز التقية أن لا يكون للمكلف مخلص من الأذى إلا بالتقية و هذا المخلص قد يكون الهرب من القتل أو القطع أو الضرب… (المصدر السابق ص-١٩٢)

[18]

المصدر السابق ص-١٩٤

[19]

مأخوذ من العزلة و الخلطة لسلمان العودة

[20]

العزلة و الخلطة لسلمان العودة

[21] ibid

[22] ibid

[23] ibid

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